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19019
23/01/2019

Conception et Développement de Composants Logiciels et Matériels pour un Dispositif Ophtalmique

J.COMBIER

RAP

Doctorat : Université de Toulouse III - Paul Sabatier, 23 Janvier 2019, 223p., Président: F.BERRY, Rapporteurs: A.IZAGUIRRE ALTUNA, , Examinateurs: A.BOUCHIER, O.MOREL, Directeurs de thèse: P.DANES, B.VANDEPORTAELE , N° 19019

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Résumé

Les recherches menées au cours de cette thèse de Doctorat s’inscrivent dans les activités du laboratoire commun OPERA (OPtique EmbaRquée Active) impliquant ESSILOR-LUXOTTICA et le CNRS. L’objectif est de contribuer au développement des “lunettes du futur” intégrant des fonctions d’obscurcissement, de focalisation ou d’affichage qui s’adaptent en permanence à la scène et au regard de l’utilisateur. Ces nouveaux dispositifs devront être dotés de capacités de perception, de décision et d’action, et devront respecter des contraintes d’encombrement, de poids, de consommation énergétique et de temps de traitement. Ils présentent par conséquent des connexions évidentes avec la robotique. Dans ce contexte, les recherches ont consisté à investiguer la structure et la construction de tels systèmes afin d’identifier leurs enjeux et difficultés. Pour ce faire, la première tâche a été de mettre en place des émulateurs de divers types de lunettes actives, qui permettent de prototyper et d’évaluer efficacement diverses fonctions. Dans cette phase de prototypage et de test, ces émulateurs s’appuient naturellement sur une architecture logicielle modulaire typique de la robotique. La seconde partie de la thèse s’est focalisée sur le prototypage d’un composant clé des lunettes du futur, qui implique une contrainte supplémentaire de basse consommation : le système de suivi du regard, aussi appelé oculomètre. Le principe d’un assemblage de photodiodes et d’un traitement par réseau de neurones a été proposé. Un simulateur a été mis au point, ainsi qu’une étude de l’influence de l’agencement des photodiodes et de l’hyper-paramétrisation du réseau sur les performances de l’oculomètre.

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18288
15/01/2019

The Pinocchio C++ library – A fast and flexible implementation of rigid body dynamics algorithms and their analytical derivatives

J.CARPENTIER, G.SAUREL, G.BUONDONNO, J.MIRABEL, F.LAMIRAUX, O.STASSE, N.MANSARD

GEPETTO

Manifestation avec acte : IEEE/SICE International Symposium on System Integration ( SII ) 2019 du 14 janvier au 16 janvier 2019, Paris (France), Janvier 2019, 6p. , N° 18288

Lien : https://hal.laas.fr/hal-01866228

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Abstract

We introduce Pinocchio, an open-source software framework that implements rigid body dynamics algorithms and their analytical derivatives. Pinocchio does not only include standard algorithms employed in robotics (e.g. forward and inverse dynamics) but provides additional features essential for the control, the planning and the simulation of robots. In this paper, we describe these features and detail the programming patterns and design which make Pinocchio efficient. We also offer a short tutorial for easy handling of the framework.

145395
18101
01/01/2019

An overview of humanoid robots technologies

O.STASSE, T.FLAYOLS

GEPETTO

Ouvrage (contribution) : Biomechanics of Anthropomorphic Systems, Springer, N°ISBN 978-3-319-93870-7, Vol.281, N°310, Janvier 2019 , N° 18101

Lien : https://hal.laas.fr/hal-01759061

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Abstract

Humanoid robots are challenging mechatronics structures with several interesting features. Choosing a humanoid robot to develop applications or pursue research in a given direction might be difficult due to the strong interdependence of the technical aspects. This paper aims at giving a general description of this interdependence and highlight the lessons learned from the impressive works conducted in the past decade. The reader will find in the annex a table synthesizing the characteristics of the most relevant humanoid robots. Without focusing on a specific application we consider two main classes of humanoid robots: the ones dedicated to industrial application and the ones dedicated to human-robot interaction. The technical aspects are described in a way which illustrates the humanoid robots bridging the gap between these two classes. Finally this paper tries to make a synthesis on recent technological developments 1. 1 Mechanical structure 1.1 General design principal Humanoid robots are complex mechatronic systems. As such, it is necessary to consider the the mechanical structure, the computational system and the algorithms as a whole and for a given application. The robot's size, weight and strength are important factors when designing its structure. Let us consider two general classes of applications: physical performances while doing motion generation and validation of biological and/or cognitive models. The ATLAS robot from Boston Dynamics is an example of the first category, while the Kenshiro robot [45] from Tokyo University is an example of the second category

144064
18427
21/12/2018

A Novel Experimental Model and a Drag-optimal Allocation Method for Variable-Pitch Propellers in Multirotors

V.ARELLANO, E.A.MERCHAN-CRUZ, A.FRANCHI

IPN Mexique, RIS

Revue Scientifique : IEEE Access, pp.68155-68168, Décembre 2018 , N° 18427

Lien : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-01940465

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Abstract

This paper proposes a new mathematical model to map the rotational speed and angle of attack (pitch) of small-size propellers typically used in multirotors and the aerodynamic thrust force and drag moment produced by the propeller itself. The new model is inspired by standard models using the blade-element and momentum theories, which have been suitably modified in order to allow for explicit fast computation of the direct and inverse map (useful for high-frequency control) and obtain a better adherence to experimental data. The new model allows and captures all the main nonlinear characteristics of the thrust/drag generation. An extensive experimental comparison shows that the prediction capability of the proposed model outperforms the most commonly used models at date. In the second part of the paper, two optimization methods are proposed in order to exploit the redundancy of the inputs of variable-pitch propellers to decrease the power consumption due to the drag dissipation. The first method deals with the optimal allocation for thrust generation on a single propeller, while the second method is aimed at solving the optimal allocation of the rotational speed and pitch of all the propellers in a multi-rotor with any number of propellers. Simulations results show the viability and effectiveness of the proposed methods

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18417
11/12/2018

The Tele-MAGMaS: An Aerial-Ground Comanipulator System

N.STAUB, M.MOHAMMADI, D.BICEGO, Q.DELAMARE, H.YANG, D.PRATTICHIZZO, P.R.GIORDANO, D.LEE, A.FRANCHI

RIS, University of Siena, IRISA, Seoul, IIT, Genova, INRIA Rennes

Revue Scientifique : IEEE Robotics and Automation Magazine, 10p., Décembre 2018, DOI 10.1109/MRA.2018.2871344 , N° 18417

Lien : https://hal.inria.fr/hal-01935127

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145549
18420
04/12/2018

Modélisation 3D et suivi visuel pour caractériser le phénotype de variétés de tournesol

W.GELARD

RAP

Doctorat : 4 Décembre 2018, 153p., Président: F.BARET, Rapporteurs: D.ROUSSEAU, G.RABATEL, Examinateurs: M.DEVY, Directeurs de thèse: A.HERBULOT, P.DEBAEKE , N° 18420

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Abstract

The constant increasing food and energy demand in the world associated to global warming and climate change issues, pushed the researchs in plant breeding to move towards the improvement of crops performance and development of a more sustainable agriculture. To meet these demands, the effort made by the researchers were focused on the development of high-throughput genotyping methods (i.e., the study of genome sequence of plants) and allowed the biologists to indentified the genotypes of a large amount of plants. Moreover, understanding the relationships that link the genotypes (DNA) to the phenotypes (visual characteristics) that evolve according environmental conditions like : light, water, drought, heat, etc. has become a main issue in agricultural research. While the genotyping methods were rapidly improved and automatized during the last decade, the phenotyping methods remain manual, sometimes destructive and non-replicable. The usual phenotyping methods consist to measure certain visual parameters of a plant such as : main stem heigh, number of leaves, leaf initiation angle or leaf area, but more importantly, be able to follow these parameters along the plant growth. Consequently, the number of plants to harvest is very important and the measurements are extremely time-consuming. The emergence and reliability of new technologies in computer vision and robotic have led the researchers to take an interest in them and to seek how they can be used in plant science. The thesis is focused on the design, development and validation of a high-throughput phenotyping method design for sunflower plant with an eye to amplify phenotyping capacities by Agronomists and Geneticists (and later varieties evaluators and seed producers). The aim is to improve, modernize and automatize the current phenotyping methods as a way to help the plant scientists to collect a large amount of data. Motivated by the wish to perform high-throughput plant phenotyping, we propose a 3D approach to automatically extract visual characteristics of sunflower plants grown in pot. First, a 3D point cloud of a plant is acquired with classical SfM techniques. A segmentation step is then proceeded to retrieve the main stem and the leaves. With the intention of following the visual characteristics during the plant growth, especially, the leaf area expansion rate of each leaf, a labelling step relying on the botanical model of a plant is performed to affect them a unique label that will not change over time. Finally, the visual characteristics are extracted and results obtained on sunflower plants demonstrate the efficiency of our method and make it an encouraging step toward high-throughput plant phenotyping.

Résumé

L’augmentation constante de la demande alimentaire et énergétique dans le monde associée au réchauffement et changements climatiques ont poussé les recherches en agronomie vers le développement d’une agriculture plus durable et l’amélioration de la performance des cultures. Pour répondre à ces demandes, les chercheurs ont concentré leurs efforts sur le développement de méthodes de génotypage à haut débit (l’étude de la séquence génomique des plantes) et ont permis aux biologistes d’identifier les génotypes d’une grande quantité de plantes. De plus, comprendre les relations qui lient les génotypes (ADN) aux phénotypes (caractéristiques visuelles) qui évoluent en fonction des conditions d’irrigation, d’illumination ou de température est devenu un enjeu majeur dans la recherche agricole. Alors que les méthodes de génotypage ont été rapidement améliorées et automatisées au cours de la dernière décennie, les méthodes de phénotypage restent manuelles et parfois destructrices. Ces méthodes consistent à mesurer certains paramètres visuels d’une plante telle que : la hauteur de la tige principale, le nombre de feuilles, les angles d’initiation des feuilles ou la surface foliaire et plus important encore, à suivre ces paramètres tout au long de la croissance des plantes. Par conséquent, le nombre de plantes à cultiver est très important et les mesures prennent beaucoup de temps. Avec l’émergence des nouvelles technologies en vision par ordinateur et en robotique, les chercheurs en agronomie y ont vu un intérêt certain en vue d’automatiser la collecte et les mesures des données visuelles sur les plantes. La thèse porte sur la conception, le développement et la validation de traitements haut débit à exécuter automatiquement sur des images acquises sur des plantes de tournesol, en vue d’amplifier les capacités de phénotypage par les chercheurs en agronomie (et ultérieurement les évaluateurs de variétés et les semenciers). L’objectif est la mise au point d’un protocole d’acquisition d’images (en plante isolée) depuis un robot mobile (ou un système d’acquisition autonome) permettant d’améliorer, de moderniser et d’automatiser les méthodes de phénotypage actuelles afin d’aider les chercheurs en agronomie à collecter une grande quantité de données. Motivés par le souhait d’effectuer un phénotypage à haut débit, nous proposons une approche 3D pour extraire automatiquement les caractéristiques visuelles des plantes de tournesol cultivées en pot. Tout d’abord, un nuage de points 3D d’une plante est acquis avec des techniques classiques de SfM. Une étape de segmentation est ensuite effectuée pour extraire la tige principale et les feuilles. Dans le but de suivre les caractéristiques visuelles pendant la croissance des plantes, en particulier, suivre l’expansion foliaire de chaque feuille, une étape de labellisation basée sur le modèle botanique d’une plante est appliquée pour leur affecter une étiquette unique qui ne changera pas avec le temps. Enfin, les caractéristiques visuelles sont extraites et les résultats obtenus sur les plantes de tournesol démontrent l’efficacité de notre méthode et en font une étape encourageante vers le phénotypage haut débit.

Mots-Clés / Keywords
Phénotypage 3D; Tournesols; Reconstruction et Segmentation 3D; 3D Phenotyping; Sunflower plant; 3D Reconstruction and Segmentation;

145595
18495
01/12/2018

Motion Planning for an Elastic Rod using Contacts

O.ROUSSEL, P.FERNBACH, M.TAIX

GEPETTO

Rapport LAAS N°18495, Décembre 2018

Lien : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-01954894

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Abstract

This paper focuses on the motion planning problem of an extensible elastic rod in collision-free or contact space. The rod is assumed to be handled by grippers either at one or both extremities. Furthermore, during manipulation, the grasped end may change. We show that the use of both quasi-static and dynamic models can be coupled efficiently with sampling-based methods. Sampling directly in the submanifold of static equilibrium and contact-free configurations allows to take advantage of the dynamic model to improve the exploration of the state space. In this way, thanks to the contact information (point, forces, direction, number of contacts), the exploration of the RRT approach can be improved. We present a new RRT-SLIDE algorithm which guides the roadmap extension with a sliding contact mode based on some principles of human reasoning. We show that our approach is probabilistically complete. We also demonstrate the necessity of considering contacts on complex scenarios with several simulation experiments. Besides its performances , our algorithm does not require further tuning phase for a new scenario. Note to Practitioners-This work was done under the industrial project Flecto (ANR-Digital Models). It aims at solving the assembly/disassembly task for a rod while satisfying the elasticity parameters of its material. For industrial applications, the resolution time is a critical point. On the one hand, probabilistic motion planning methods require to efficiently build a roadmap of valid rod configurations. On the other hand, accurate rod modeling implies the use of a simulator based on the finite element method. Nevertheless, the very large size of the roadmap, that leads to a high number of calls to the simulator, is conflicting with the high computational cost of finite-element based simulation. To overcome this problem, one solution is to reduce the number of simulator calls. This can be achieved by sampling the free space with an efficient parameterization and by limiting the use of the simulator to roadmap extension in the free space or in the contact space. We introduce heuristics based on contact information returned by the simulator to reduce significantly the computational time. One of the main advantages of our algorithm is that it does not require any tuning phase for each scenario. Although we do not solve the more general gripper manipulation planning problem, this approach could be used as a first step before computing the motion of the grippers. In the framework of our project, we did not consider disassembling operations implying undoing rod knots. Consequently, we do not take friction into account in our approach. In order to handle knots, it would be necessary to have a physics simulator that could handle friction for deformable rods.

146014
18438
01/12/2018

On the Pertinence of Social Practices for Social Robotics

A.CLODIC, J.VAZQUEZ-SALCEDA, F.DIGNUM, S.MASCARENHAS, V.DIGNUM, A.AUGELLO, M.GENTILE, R.ALAMI

IDEA, UPC, Utrecht, INESC, Delft, CNR, RIS

Ouvrage (contribution) : Envisioning Robots in Society – Power, Politics, and Public Space, IOS Press, N°ISBN 978-1-61499-931-7, Décembre 2018, pp.63-74 , N° 18438

Lien : https://hal.laas.fr/hal-01943774

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Abstract

In the area of consumer robots that need to have rich social interactions with humans, one of the challenges is the complexity of computing the appropriate interactions in a cognitive, social and physical context. We propose a novel approach for social robots based on the concept of Social Practices. By using social practices robots are able to be aware of their own social identities (given by the role in the social practice) and the identities of others and also be able to identify the different social contexts and the appropriate social interactions that go along with those contexts and identities.

145834
17381
27/11/2018

2PAC: Two point attractors for center of mass trajectories in multi contact scenarios

S.TONNEAU, A.DEL PRETE, J.PETTRE, N.MANSARD

GEPETTO, IRISA

Revue Scientifique : ACM Transactions on Graphics, Vol.37, N°5, 176p., Novembre 2018 , N° 17381

Lien : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-01609055

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Synthesizing motions for legged characters in arbitrary environments is a long-standing problem that has recently received a lot of attention from the computer graphics community. We tackle this problem with a procedural approach that is generic, fully automatic and independent from motion capture data. The main contribution of this paper is a point-mass-model-based method to synthesize Center Of Mass trajectories. These trajectories are then used to generate the whole-body motion of the character. The use of a point mass model often results in physically inconsistent motions and joint limit violations. We mitigate these issues through the use of a novel formulation of the kinematic constraints which allows us to generate a quasi-static Center Of Mass trajectory, in a way that is both user-friendly and computationally efficient. We also show that the quasi-static constraint can be relaxed to generate motions usable for applications of computer graphics (on average 83% of a given trajectory remain physically consistent). Our method was integrated in our open-source contact planner and tested with different scenarios-some never addressed before-featuring legged characters performing non-gaited motions in cluttered environments. The computational efficiency of our trajectory generation algorithm (under ten ms to compute one second of motion) enables us to synthesize motions in a few seconds, one order of magnitude faster than state-of-the-art methods.

145315
18263
23/11/2018

A Study on Force-based Collaboration in Flying Swarms

C.GABELLIERI, M.TOGNON, L.PALLOTTINO, A.FRANCHI

RIS, Pise

Manifestation avec acte : International Conference on Swarm Intelligence ( ANTS ) 2018 du 29 octobre au 31 octobre 2018, Rome (Italie), Novembre 2018, 13p. , N° 18263

Lien : https://hal.laas.fr/hal-01846465

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This work investigates collaborative aerial transportation by swarms of agents based only on implicit information, enabled by the physical interaction among the agents and the environment. Such a coordinating mechanism in collaborative transportation is a basic skill in groups of social animals. We consider cable-suspended objects transported by a swarm of flying robots and we formulate several hypothesis on the behavior of the overall system which are validated thorough numerical study. In particular, we show that a nonzero internal force reduces to one the number of asymptotically stable equilibria and that the internal force intensity is directly connected to the convergence rate. As such, the internal force represents the cornerstone of a communication-less cooperative manipulation paradigm in swarms of flying robots. We also show how a swarm can achieve a stable transportation despite the imprecise knowledge of the system parameters.

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